What Are The Different Processes Of Rugs Making?
Aug 30, 2022 | Akshay Maharkhede
WHAT IS A RUG?
A rug is a heavy thick textile product used in floor covering. It differs from the carpet as it is affixed to the floor from wall to wall, while a rug is portable and smaller.
The rug originated from the nomadic people of central Asia. Traditionally it is created with wool. As time passes, nowadays, it has been created with different fabrics.
WHAT MATERIAL IS USED FOR MAKING RUGS?
Natural fiber rugs, such as wool, silk, or jute rugs, and synthetic fiber rugs, such as stain-resistant polyester and olefin rugs. Some rugs feature a combination of natural and synthetic fibers, such as mixing silk with viscose to increase durability.
WHY ARE RUGS SO EXPENSIVE?
Well, anything that is handmade requires human knowledge, skill, and time and will cost more than mass-produced, machine-made items. The same goes for carpets. Hand-knotted rugs, produced by hand-weaving each knot individually in a specially designed state, are, therefore, the most expensive.
Of course, the longer it takes to make a rug, the more expensive it is. Similarly, the material can also add to the cost of a rug because "the more difficult the material is to get or the more durable it is, the more expensive it is."Wool and silk are some of the highest priced materials but also some of the most durable and make the most beautiful rugs."
Country of origin affects costs because labor costs can vary along with the workers' skills. Finally, size also affects cost, as generally, carpets are priced per square foot or square meter. Donovan said that for almost every type of carpet, more area means more money.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RUGS & CARPETS?
The carpet is bigger; it goes from wall to wall and is glued to the floor. Rugs, on the other hand, are smaller than the room floor and are not attached to the floor. Rugs can be displaced from place to place.
Here are key difference between rugs and carpets. (source: pediaa)
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT PROCESSES OF MAKING RUGS?
Traditionally it is used by hand only, But nowadays, it is done with the help of a tufting gun. It quickens the process. Skilled artisans can take it to another level while experimenting and creating a 3D effect.
First, the foundation cloth is printed or drawn with the design. Then the fabric is fixed in the frame to make it ready for tufting. And now, the tufting process is carried out with the help of a tufting gun. As they finish the whole surface, they shave down the loops to create an even surface.
(Image source : jaipur rugs)
2)HAND-LOOMED/WOVEN RUGS/PANJA DHURRIE
Panja weave is a traditional weaving technique practiced in Jodhpur (India). The name panja originated from a metallic claw-like tool, ‘panja,’ used for beating the weft threads to increase the stability of the rug.
The skeleton of warps is placed, and the panja weaving starts (image source: vimla rugs )
The hand-knotting technique is a much labor-intensive process. It is traditionally practiced in the Tibetan, Persian, and Indian rugs industry.
They are made by carefully tying each knot in racks. Traditionally, hand-knotted rugs are made of a specially designed frame. The vertical strings are tied to the loom and eventually into the edge of the rug.
The hand-knotting technique is much labor-intensive process.(source: jaipur rugs)
Block printing is a traditional style practiced by artisans in India, passed from one generation to another. It requires experience and hard work to achieve fineness in work. The cotton hand-knotted rugs are block printed with natural dyes, and then the rugs are stonewashed to give them an antique look.
The cotton hand-knotted rugs are block printed with natural dyes, and then the rugs are stonewashed to give it an antique look.(source:vimla rugs)
The jute yarn is braided into the thicker braid to form a stable rope-like structure. Then it is stitched in a way to form an area, and it forms the final rug. It is soft natural & jute-based rugs braided by skilled artisans in India.
Braided rug (source:vimla rugs)
Shags carpet is a deep pile layer made of fibers with long hair. This type of carpet is very soft when touched, and it feels soft & comfortable. However, they give a luxurious look. The shag carpeting is characterized by its sloppy appearance, which looks just a little wild. Shag carpeting is strongly associated with the 1970s, when this look reached its highest popularity. However, shag carpeting is much older than the Disco Era.
They are very soft when touched and it feels soft & comfortable(source: plushrugs.com)
They are the outer skin of animals. Each animal's skin has a unique pattern and texture, the only thing that makes them beautiful.
The skin goes through so much different processing that it is only skin and fur. Some popular hide rugs are sheep, goats, deer, zebra, and cowhide.
Basically, they are nothing but highly finished animal skin. (source: hiderugs.co.uk
Hooked rugs are made mainly by using a hook-like crochet hook. A few rugs come with combination loops and cut piles on the face. After the artisans had finished making the Hooked rugs, they covered the back of the rugs with liquid latex to protect the shape & stitches.
There is a direct difference between Hooked and Tufted rugs that you should be familiar with. The extra layer of tufted and connected rays forms the basis of the difference between the two. Tufted rugs come with cut piles without bumps and attached rugs with loops.
They are made mainly by using a hook-like crochet hook (source: www.exportersindia.com )
HOW TO START RUG TUFTING FOR BEGINNERS?
1. Transfer your pattern or hand-drawn design to the carpet backing material unless you have purchased tufting material with a pre-printed pattern.
2. Attach the carpet backing to the tufting frame and secure the frame firmly. The frame hangs the rug's backing material and stretches it so you can hook or tuft the rug.
3.Start using tufting gun
Cut Pile Tufting Gun Start using tufting gun with conciderable pressure (img source gfycat.com )
Always apply considerable pressure with the tufting machine on the backing fabric. If consistent pressure is not applied, the yarn will be pushed towards you instead of creating a varying pile height. Turn the tufting machine in the direction you want to go, keeping your foot in front. The presser foot is the curved metal part near the needle.
4. Finishing & final touch
After completing the tufting process, your yarn tufts must be secured to the back. This is typically done with an adhesive of some sort. Any glue will work, but generally, a carpet adhesive is used. The important thing is that the ends of the yarn are secured so they won't pull out of the backing. In addition to applying glue, many people choose to stick a backing fabric onto the glue while it's still wet.
How do Persian rugs are made?
Hand woven with the finest materials including wool and silk, a single Persian rug can often take years and sometimes decades to create ( source:gfycat.com )
Firstly the best quality sheep wool or silk is selected for dyeing.
The wool or silk is treated and dyed before the rug is knotted. Natural dyes often provide a more muted and natural palette. Carpets using chemical dyes can be brighter, more vivid, and more vibrant than their natural counterparts. It depends on the shade of color and looks you want to achieve.
Then the design of the rug is printed on paper.
Then weaving starts. First, there is a woven part of the kilim (flat woven part) on the bottom edge. The weaver takes a piece of wool or silk to make a knot on two warps matching the patterns and colors in the picture. Then he cuts off the excess wool with a hook knife.
After the weaving process is complete, the weaver cuts the warp to remove the rug from the loom. The rug is then handed over to a shearer who shaves off the wool to reduce the length of the pile. Depending on the carpet, the groomer will decide on the length of the pile. The rug is then sent to be washed to remove dirt or lose fibers and then placed in the sun to dry naturally.
Various rugs have been made, including braiding, tufting, Hooked, hide, block printing, and weaving. These processes can be done by hand, using smaller tools such as a ratchet hook or a weaving machine. However, anything that is handmade requires human knowledge, skill, and time and will cost more than mass-produced, machine-made items. Nowadays, we often see how expensive these rugs are; we have seen what makes them so expensive. Nowadays, rug tufting is very common as a small business for an artist willing to start a small online store. Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, India, China, and the Caucasus are important countries for producing handmade carpets. For example, Turkey, Morocco, and Egypt are some of the main countries with their characteristics.
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